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8. Places to Go, on the Web and in the World

Information on Romani Language

If you are referring to Romani, there are many publications available. W.R. Rishi compiled a Romani-Punjabi-English phrasebook (based on the Balkan dialects of Romani, 1980, printed by Rajdhani Press, 83, Wazirpur Industrial Complex, Delhi-110052). The Hertfordshire Press publishes many books related to Roma ( including the recent book, What is the Romani Language? (there is a description of it at the above link). The Patrin website has some general information (, for example, see the articles, "Lexical Impoverishment as Control" (by Ian Hancock, who has written extensively on Romani, his e-mail is xulaj(at) and "The Language of the Roma". The Patrin website also has an associated e-mail discussion list, and many members are Romani speakers. One of the list members recently reprinted a set of Romani lessons based off of a text by Barthelemy.

Another general description of Romani is at There is a more detailed linguistic description of Romani at (see the article "Romani in General"), as well as information regarding Romani textbooks for Austrian dialects. There is a brief discussion of Romani dialects at If you can read Italian, there is a description of the Xoraxane dialect at If you can read Spanish, there is an article on Kalo (a Spanish dialect of Romani) at If you want to listen to Romani spoken/sung by native speakers, one of the best sites is I am not sure exactly what you are looking for, but I hope the above suggestions were helpful. If you need information on more resources, please e-mail me at mailto:gavi0022(at) Sincerely,
Carmen Gavin

If you want information about Romani language in Europe, you can visit our web-site ( In the Publication section, you can go to the working-paper sub-section and then download the working-paper nº3, titled: “The political status of the romani language in Europe”, written by Peter Bakker and Marcia Rooker Mercator: linguistic rights and legislation CIEMEN, Rocafort 242 bis, 08029 Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain

* There was an article in Applied Linguistics journal a couple years ago on recent attempts to codify the Romani language:
Writing Romani: the pragmatics of codification in a stateless language, by Y. Matras, Department of Linguistics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK, E-mail: y.matras(at)
It appeared in:
Applied Linguistics, Volume 20, Issue 4 (Dec. 1999), pp. 481-502

Best wishes, Julia Sallabank

Resources for Endangered Languages

This site is for members and friends of endangered language communities, with an emphasis on Native American languages.

Besides a variety of pointers and links, it contains an interesting page on successes, giving details of revitalization work for the languages Me'phaa (or Tlapanec), Maori, Catalan, Frisian and Mohawk, and some final remarks about the importance of Literacy.

Minoritarian languages of Europe (in Russian only)

I have pleasure in inviting you to visit the web-site "Minoritarian languages of Europe" (in Russian only) dedicated to the history and present situation of some rare and endangered European languages (Cornish, Faroese, Ladin, Friulian, Crimean Tatar). This is a first Internet-based project for such the languages in Russian. Here you will have an opportunity to see extracts from our manual of Crimean Tatar for Russian-speaking beginners, Russian-Crimean Tatar Dictionary, Ukrainian-Crimean Tatar Dictionary and their current pricing. So, please go to :

With kindest regards
Vadim Mireyev chimproject(at)

Access to Valencian

On November 14 2001 Joan Pau Merita pmerita(at) wrote:

Article 7.1 of the Statute of the Comunitat Valenciana, which includes the provinces of Alacant, Castello and Valencia, reads:

"The two official languages of the Autonomous Community are the Valencian and the Castilian. Everyone has the right to know and use them.".

The old Kingdom of Valencia was set up as an Autonomous Community in 1982, and the Law for the linguistic normalisation of the Valencian language was approved on 23 November, 1983 B.O.E. (Official State Bulletin of Spain) 20, of 20 January, 1984.

Legal and political status: The Statute of Autonomy of the Valencian Community (1982) specifies that the official languages of the region are Valencian and Castilian. In 1983 a 'Use and Teaching of Valencian Act' was passed to encourage and spread the use of the language.

Idiom: The Valencian Community, located on the Mediterranean coast of Spain, has a population of 4 million. There are three phonetically distinguished dialects: "Castellonenc or Salat" in the north, "Alacanti" in the south and Meridional Valencian or "Apichat" in the center region.

Speakers: Nowadays Valencian is spoken by 2 million in the Valencian Community and in a small area of the frontier region of Murcia called "el Carche". 54.5% of the Valencian population speak Valencian. It is the mother tongue of 39% of Valencians. 88.2% of the population understand it, but only 17.2% read Valencian correctly. (Studies of the CIS nº 2228 and 2241, Center of Sociological Investigations of Spain, Nov-Dec 1996, March-April 1997).

Some Web Sites:

(1) Methodological Foundation

This web site includes a large explanation of the methodological foundation of the Valencian language by the Professor J. Angeles Castello. Text in English.

(2) Report on the language

Report about the Valencian language by the Professor Antoni Fontelles. Linguistical, sociolinguistical, juridical, political, literarian and bibliographic dimensions of the valencian are available in this report. Text in English.

(3) PNP, Plataforma Normes d' el Puig

This is the site of PNP, a Platform constituted by more than 60 associations of all the Valencian territory to protect the Valencian language. This site includes a large report about the current situation of Valencian. Also includes the full text of the "Manifesto to the Valencian identity and Valencian language". Full English, French, Spanish and Valencian versions.

(4) Legal Status language/language/valencia

Basic information about the legal status of the Valencian language. Text in english.

Scottish language planning

The Department of Celtic and Scottish Studies is endeavouring to establish a Centre for Language Policy and Language Planning. Towards this end a seminar series has been organised for 2001-02 and a series of research reports is planned.

These seminars and reports will tackle a range of subjects relating to language policy and language planning both within Scotland and internationally.

Sreath òraidean / Seminar series
Liostaichean sgrìobhainnean air poileasaidh cànain / Bibliographies on language policy Gaelic in Scotland: Sociolinguistics and Language Policy Bibliography 1980-2001 Minority Ethnic Languages in Scotland: Sociolinguistics and Language Policy Bibliography 1980-2001
'A Selected Classified Bibliography of the Scots Language' (Caroline Macafee, University of Aberdeen)

Aithisgean rannsachaidh / Research reports
Faclair Na Pàrlamaid: A Critical Evaluation (Wilson McLeod, October 2001)
The State of the 'Gaelic Economy': A Research Report (Wilson McLeod, October 2001)
Revitalising Gaelic? A Critical Analysis of the Report of the Taskforce on Public Funding of Gaelic (Alasdair MacCaluim with Wilson McLeod, October 2001)



There is also a Celtic Section Homepage | and a page for Celtic and Scottish Studies

All queries concerning Research on Language Policy and Planning in the Department of Celtic and Scottish Studies should be directed to:

Languages in Southern Africa: LASU

The Linguistics Association for SADC Universities (LASU) has just inaugurated its own webpage at:

LASU's main aim is to foster cooperation with existing SADC structure by contributing to social development in the region through research in linguistics and language education, and to promote collaboration and coordination of research resources through the sharing of research materials between teachers and researchers.

LASU was established in November 1984 by the representatives from SADC universities. The current member states of SADC include Angola, Botswana, Congo-Kinshasa, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

To contact LASU, email:

Dr. Joyce T. Mathangwane
The LASU Secretariat
Department of English
Faculty of Humanities
University of Botswana
Private Bag UB 00703

EMAIL: mathanjt(at)
FAX: +267 585098

Prof. David P. B. Massamba
University of Dar es Salaam
PO Box 35037
Dar es Salaam

EMAIL: massambadavid(at)
FAX: +255 022 2410078
FAX: +255 022 2410023

On behalf of LASU
Jouni Maho, Dept of Oriental and African Languages, Goteborg University

Anyone for Selkup?

Olga Kazakevitch and her team at the Moscow State University is offering us the sound of a few words of Selkup, a Siberian language spoken on the Yenisei river.

There are also some very striking pictures of the speakers, and some details of their biographies.

The site's commentary is bilingual in English and Russian.

Language Museum

This is a site with buttons for 1200 languages from Abkhaz to Zulu (which evidently means a fair number of them number among the endangered).

Each page so accessed has a short (ca 8-line) written text in a language (passed as an image file), very often the equivalent of the following, though it might be the Lord's Prayer , or a snatch of journalistic prose. Then there is a translation into English, and a couple of lines giving the number of speakers and their location in a state or states.

"Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty."

There is no evidence of who has put this up, or why, although there is an advertisement for some pyramid-scheme type employment on the page.

WEB-OF-WORDS: a web site dedicated to the linguistic diversity of the European Union

Brussels, Friday, December 10, 2001

"The European languages that few people speak about." More than forty minority languages of the European Union are presented on the new "web of words" site

Did you know that Russian is one of the minority languages of the European Union? That Cornish, a Celtic language, which disappeared in the 19th century, is reviving in Cornwall and on the web? That Judeo-Spanish, today spoken by numerous European Jews, is very similar to the Spanish spoken in the 15th century? The "Web-Of-Words" - site presents about forty languages, so called "regional- or minority languages", which are spoken in the European Union.

"It is one of the goals of the European Bureau for Lesser Used Languages, to call the attention of every European citizen on the diversity and richness of all the languages spoken in the European Union" explains Markus Warasin, the Bureau‚s Secretary General " this web site has been voluntarily created to answer questions asked by the public about the European language reality, often very different from one Member-State to another."

The site describes in a simple way the situation of each minority language of the European Union, its status, its history and the reality of its use. But "a language is also about its sound and its accents. Therefore, it seemed extremely important to us, to complete the presentation, by adding poems read by native speakers." says Julia Turkina, in charge of the documentation for "Web-Of-Words".

Created within the framework of the European Year of Languages with the financial support of the European Commission (DG Education and Culture), the web site of Web-of-Words will be further developed and enriched: an original and multilingual screen saver is already downloadable from the site; a quiz will soon be online, with numerous books to win; further useful linguistic explanations; more poems and photos will be online before the end of the European Year of Languages 2001.

Bertrand-Romain Menciassi - Project leader
European Bureau for Lesser Used Languages
Rue Saint-Josse, 49, B-1210 Bruxelles
Tél : +32 (0)2 250 31 62
Fax : +32 (0)2 218 19 74
Email : bertrand(at)

Navajo children's literature

Clay Slate wrote on 19 Dec 2001 cslatejr(at)

A project of the Navajo Nation's Dinéé College is writing and posting Navajo multimedia children's literature. There are now thirty-two multimedia children's books posted on the web, available for download to all platforms. They are written and recorded in Navajo, by Navajo authors, for a Navajo audience, about topics to interest Navajo children. The authors are Navajo teacher trainees in programs at the Center for Dine Teacher Education at Dine College. The multimedia specialists doing the programming and polishing up these materials are Tulley Nakai and Vale Adakia. The programming has been done in Macromedia's Authorware.

Each book has text, illustrations, a sound file that reads the text to the user aloud, an available English/Navajo glossary, identification of Arizona state standards addressed by the materials, and, in some cases, pre-reading activities and comprehension questions. After downloading them to a desktop computer, one does not need fonts or plug-ins to make them operate; each book is a self-contained executable. Good ones to try out first would be "Animals", "Cowgirl", "School", or "Brothers". Tell us what you think, please. Make suggestions. You can download from:

Click on "multimedia" and follow instructions.