Foundation for Endangered Languages

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2. Development of the Foundation

2007 FEL grant recipients announced

The judging committee for the 2007 round of grants, presided over by our Grants Officer Hakim Elnazarov, has announced the list of suc-cessful applicants for the Foundation’s Grants. We’re pleased to an-nounce the names of the successful applicants here, representing a wide variety of projects around the world. Altogether we decided to award funds to ten applicants whose work appeared to most benefit the speaker communities which are the focus of their research. They are as follows, with awards quoted in US dollars:

  • Jørgen Rischel (Denmark) “Developing a Mlabri-Thai-English dictionary for practical use” ($800)
  • Martin Kailie (Sierra Leone) “Documentation of the Banda Lan-guage and Culture” ($1140)
  • Shodikhor Yusufbekov (Tajikistan) “Roshorvi language: Trans-mission of language skills between generations” ($880)
  • Éva Csató (Sweden) “”Teaching resources for the Karaim Summer School in Trakai [Lithuania] in July 2007)” ($1000)
  • Olga Lovick, Siri Tuttle, Isabel Nunez (USA) “Upper Tanana grammar resource for teachers” ($923)
  • Ai-yu (Tracy) Tang (USA/Taiwan) “Truku, Mandarin and English Picture Dictionary” ($500)
  • Marit Vamarasi (USA) “Rotuman Dictionary and Cor-pus” ($792)
  • Nina Sumbatova (Russia) “Traditional texts in Kunki: Reading materials and linguistic database” ($345)
  • Fatoumata Diallo (Burkina Faso) “Revitalisation of the Tiefo language” ($1000)
  • Govinda Tumbahang (Nepal) “Orthography manage-ment and book writing in Chhatthare Limbu”($700)

    This year we had a good response to our call for applica-tions and a good field of applicants. We warmly congratu-late the successful applicants and wish them continued success in their language revitalisation and documenta-tion work.

    But our pleasure at being able to make this announce-ment has been tempered with sadness. Just after we made our selection, we received the sad news of the death of our most academically distinguished recipient, Professor Jørgen Rischel of Copenhagen, Denmark. Pro-fessor Rischel had intended to carry out a project among the Mlabri speakers of Thailand, developing a Mlabri-Thai-English dictionary for practical use. His interests were wide-ranging, and as the obituary posted below on the Linguist List shows, he is a great loss to linguistics.

    15 May 2007
    From: Peter Bakker
    Subject: Obituary: Jørgen Rischel 1934-2005
    Jørgen Rischel, professor of linguistics in Copenhagen, Denmark passed away Friday May 10, 2007. He is best known internationally for his descriptive work on Greenlandic, his grammar of Minor Mlabri of Thailand and his analyses of Danish phonology and morphology. He also contributed a considerable body of work on historical linguistics, the history of linguistics, linguistic fieldwork, phonology and links between linguistics and culture.

    Christopher Moseley, Treasurer

    Eleventh FEL Conference, Kuala Lumpur 2007

    Eleventh Conference of the Foundation for Endangered Languages, in collaboration with the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malay-sia:
    Working Together for Endangered Languages: Research Challenges and Social Impacts, 26-28 October 2007

    Globalisation has an impact on societies on various levels. One of its implications is the further endangerment of languages, especially those of minority communities. The looming threat of language loss and death is due to the hegemony of more dominant languages in sociopolitical and economic domains. Linguists therefore have an important role in documenting, projecting, and providing information on, languages which face extinction.

    Linguists undertaking such research must tread carefully in any com-munity which faces language endangerment. The researcher by his or her very presence can disturb the established social relations, the socio-economic organisation, and the power relations within a com-munity, bringing in more globalisation, and more awareness of and exchange with the outside world. Researchers must be made aware of the impact of their presence.

    Communities facing language endangerment may not be cooperative towards outsiders and may view them with suspicion. In some com-munities breaking such barriers requires tact, effort, and strategic planning. Members of the community facing endangerment should be perceived and treated by the researchers as experts in their heritage language. Such a view inevitably reduces the power inequality be-tween researchers and members of the endangered language and eases collaboration. Cooperation and collaboration may be impeded if the linguist sees him/herself or is seen as someone who is more authorita-tive and linguistically more ‘correct’ than members of the community facing endangerment. Such a perception may result in the infamous observer’s paradox where subjects become less natural in the presence of the researcher. When researchers do not take members of the studied communities seriously, collaborative work is impeded as the input provided may be distorted due to the researchers’ belief that they are the language ex-perts. Linguists must be objective and this can be a challenge as prior knowledge may interfere in their objectivity. Lack of trust and col-laboration may result in information not being provided. One way of combating the failure to share information is to ensure that researchers are aware that different members of the community facing language shift are responsible for different kinds of information.

    If communities are informed of the dangers of losing their languages, they may be inclined to collaborate with the linguists to provide information of the language they speak as on them is entrusted the onus of transmitting their heritage to family members. Promoting the popularity of an endangered language in domains such as the workplace, at home and at school may prove to be difficult, as endangered languages face many obstacles namely from the economic functionalities of more dominant languages and the attitudes of younger speakers. At worst, linguists could be seen as counter-productive by the very community whose language they want to save, because the shift away from an endangered language is at times motivated by upward economic and social mobility.

    The task of the linguist in this is by no means simple. To penetrate and immerse oneself in an ethnolinguistic speech community whose language may be on the verge of death provides the linguist many challenges on the social and relationship levels. While the linguist is required to collect data as a researcher, s/he must also form a relationship with the members of the community so as to collaborate with them in efforts to promote and preserve the language, in ensuring its revival, in establishing devices and procedures to stop endangerment etc. Given that the endangerment of languages can be handled sensitively through collaboration between researchers and members of a community facing language extinction, this Conference will address the research challenges and social impacts of such collaborations. Amongst the questions raised in this Conference are:

  • What can researchers do to ensure collaboration with members of the language community? What should the researcher do to find a way into the community through proper and accepted channels? What benefits can a language community expect from such collaboration?
  • What are the boundaries that the researcher should not cross in order to protect the rights and privacy of the subjects and to safeguard collaborative ties between community and researcher? What are the limits of researchers’ duties to the language community, and vice versa?
  • What is ‘best practice’ for researchers in order to be accepted and trusted as in-group members of the community? Does this require the linguist to reduce his/her role as an expert, in order to build trust and collaboration with the community? Can cultural immersion act as a collaborative means in data collection, creating the notion that the researcher is part of the community’s in-group? Are there any advantages in maintaining distance between researcher and community?
  • What options do researchers have if they encounter non-collaborative behaviour from their target subjects?
  • Can support for maintenance of an endangered language actually be socially counter-productive, when the shift away from an endangered language is seen as progress in economic and social mobility? In such conditions, can the community be made aware of the importance of language maintenance? How can the researcher convince the community of the negative impact of language loss on their culture and history and, conversely, of the benefits of recovery, preservation, promotion?
  • How can language documentation work, and its fruits, be integrated into community activities and community development? In what other ways can linguistic research benefit language maintenance and revitalization?
  • How can the researcher guard against personally causing damage to existing social and political structures? In particular, how can the researcher avoid disturbing established social relations and organization by seemingly conferring favours on specific members of the community?
  • How can the researcher ensure that s/he is not unwittingly the agent of globalisation within the community and thereby the cause of further socio-economic and cultural disruption? Abstracts should make reference to actual language situations , and ideally should draw on personal experience. The aim of the conference is to pool experience, to discuss and to learn from it, not to theorize in the abstract about inter-cultural relations.

    Abstract and Paper Submission Protocols

    In order to present a paper at the Conference, writers must submit in advance an abstract of not more than 500 words before 15 May 2007. After this deadline, abstracts will not be accepted. Abstracts submitted, which should be in English, must include the following details:

  • Title of the paper
  • Name of the author(s), organisation to which he/she belongs to
  • Postal address of the first author
  • Telephone number (and fax number if any)
  • Email address(es)
  • Abstract text (not more than 500 words)

    The abstracts should be sent via e-mail to waninda2001 at um.edu.my and fel at chibcha.demon.co.uk with the subject of the e-mail stating: “FEL Abstract: : The name of the first author will be used in all correspondence. Writers will be informed once their abstracts have been accepted and they will be required to submit their full papers for publication in the proceedings before 1 September 2007 together with their registration fee. Failure to do so will result in the disqualification of the writers to present their papers. Once accepted, full papers can be submitted in English or Malay. Each standard presentation at the Conference will last twenty minutes, with a further ten minutes for discussion and questions and answers. Plenary lectures will last forty-five minutes each; these are awarded by invitation only.

    Important Dates

  • Abstract arrival deadline – 31 May 2007 (extended from 15 May)
  • Committee's decision: 25 June 2007
  • In case of acceptance, the full paper should be sent by 1 September 2007. (Further details on the format of text will be specified to the authors) Conference dates: 26-28 October 2007

    The site for the 2007 conference of the Foundation of Endangered Languages, hosted jointly this year with SKET, University of Malaya, will be Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    University of Malaya is the oldest university in Malaysia, and SKET is responsible for 80 co-curricular courses, including “Ethnic Relations.” (http:// www. um.edu.my). The Foundation for Endangered Languages is a non-profit organization, registered as Charity 1070616 in England and Wales, founded in 1996. It exists to support, enable and assist the documentation, protection and promotion of endangered languages. (http://www. ogmios.org). Kuala Lumpur is the capital of Malaysia, in an enclave within the state of Selangor. Besides the Malay peninsula Malaysia includes the Sarawak and Sabah regions of Borneo. It has 140 indigenous languages. The indigenous people of Malaya, the orang asli, numbered 105,000 in 1997, 0.5 per cent of the nation's population. By contrast in 1990 there were 900,000 indigenous people in Sabah, and 1.7 million in Sarawak. As the country's largest city, K.L. hosts spectacular modern buildings, notably the Petronas Twin Towers, and most recently, the ‘Eye of Malaysia’ Ferris wheel. K.L.'s best-preserved colonial buildings are mostly in Merdeka Square, and its Chinatown is also famous. The Batu Caves, 272 steps below ground, house the Hindu Lord Muruga. K.L.'s climate is equatorial: warm, sunny and often wet, year-round.

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