Foundation for Endangered Languages

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12. Obituaries

A near-final speaker of Anambé, N. Brazil

In the end of August 2000 died one of the last seven known speakers of the Anambé language, Muihu Anambé, problably at the age of 70. The Anambés presently live on the right banks of the Cairari river, in the State of Pará, in the Northern Brazil.

Their language belongs to the Tupi-Guarani language family.

Risoleta Julião

Last fluent speakers of Ioway-Otoe-Missouria

The last fluent speakers of Ioway-Otoe-Missouria passed away in the winter of 1996, both in their 90s. There are approximately a half dozen semi-fluent speakers that remain, all born during or prior to WWII.



The Otoe-Missouria have their tribal offices at Red Rock, Oklahoma (Noble County). The Iowa of Oklahoma offices are located severalmiles south of Perkins, Oklahoma (Payne County), while the Iowa of Kansas & Nebraska have their tribal complex several miles west of White Cloud, Kansas (Doniphan County), USA.

Languages die as trees: they will remain dry in grammars and dictionaries.

Patrick-Henri Burgaud
Zypendaalseweg 75, 6814 CE Arnhem, Netherlands
tel + fax: (00 31) 26 3707370,