Foundation for Endangered Languages

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4. Appeals, News and Views from Endangered Communities

Mother Tongue Education for Social Inclusion and Conflict Resolution - B. K. Rana

As provisioned in the Constitution the government of Nepal has, in 5 years time, developed curricula in 11 different mother tongues: Limbu, Tamang, Newari, Tharu, Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Maithili, Bantawa Rai, Magar, Gurung and Sherpa. But teaching materials on these mother tongues are reported to have been kept uselessly in government storehouses. Voices are also heard from mother tongue communities that government published such materials only 'to funnel foreign-aid down to gutter'. There should be true spirit in working avoiding unwelcome practices. The government should endeavour to work in the best interest of mother tongue communities in the country.

In fact, the attempt at mother tongue education has become unsuccessful as the government has not taken it so seriously. On the other hand, the literacy campaign appears to have been partly successful. Nepal's literacy rate was 39.3% in 1991. In ten years' time government reports that it has risen to 53.7% which was projected to reach around 65% at the end of nineth plan. This suggests that nearly half of the total population is still illiterate. And the illiterate percentage primarily comprises disadvantaged communities. Literacy rate and educational attainment trend of 1991 indicates ethnic communities, excluding Thakalis and Newars, have to find a new model of literacy programme that would make them both 'practically literate' and also provide opportunities for livelihood. Therefore, the literacy curricula require revision. The conventional definition for literacy in the country is to become able to 'read and write' only. But a truly literate person should also have some practical understanding of the environment in which s/he lives. Such persons should be able to find some kind of employment for themselves, if this is beyond the government.

With the enactment of the civil code [Muluki Ain] in 1854, some of social evils as the satipratha (burning alive of dead man's wife in the pyre) and slavery could be abolished but sadly, it reinforced caste prejudice, atrocities and social exclusion against the indigenous peoples and Dalit communities in the country. During Rana regime indigenous peoples were even publicly notified to not speak their mother tongues. That directly affected the Magars, Gurungs, Duras as well as other ethnic communities of Central Nepal. Right from the rise of house of Gorkha, deliberate introduction of casteism into the contemporary societies further intensified suffering and hardship of indigenous peoples. They were and now are totally excluded and disgraced everywhere.

Indigenous peoples as well as Dalit [water untouchables] and other backward communities form more than two thirds of the total population of the country. These communities are deprived of fundamental rights to live with self-respect and dignity. The case with Dalits is quite severe and with the ethnic peoples it is also beyond any tolerance. Particularly, indigenous peoples' organizations have, therefore, cried loud and clear for their linguistic and cultural rights. Truly, there is sentimental attachment to this slogan from among the communities, which unwholesomely the Maoists have exploited in recent times. Therefore, we seem to have begun to gossiping on social inclusion and conflict resolution..

It is believed that there are lots of opportunities to work in the fields of language and culture because the country is multilingual, multiethnic and multireligious. For instance, there are few monolingual village development committees as; Thabang, Mirul, Kureni, Reugha, Jelbang, Gam, Korchabang in Rolpa district; Ugang, Kakri, Takshera, Maikot, Nakharasi in Rukum district and Nishibhalkot, Obang and few others are in Baglung district. The people in these village development committees speak Kham Magar language only. These Kham speaking communities are suffering exclusion because they can not speak Nepali, do not profess Hinduism and eat beef also. Once in Nishibhalkot in Baglung district, a candidate for the house of representative, who subsequently won the election, had to hire an interpreter to translate his 'election speech' from Nepali into Kham Magar language. The community would only understand Kham Magar language whereas the 'leader' would only speak Nepali - the state language.



Thabang is the Village in Rolpa district wherefrom began Maoist insurgency in the country six years ago. Gumda, Laprak and many other village development committees in Upper Gorkha are also monolingual. Mostly the inhabitants are Gurungs and speak Ghale Gurung language. In Palpa and Nawalparasi districts, village development committees as Mityal, Bakamalang, Sahalkot, Arkhala and many others are primarily monolingual. They are beyond any reach of Nepali - the State language.

The past has revealed that we have already become unable to address the needs of those communities and therefore there are such grave challenges in front of the nation. Guns only will not bring in peace and stability, whether they are shot from government's hand or from otherwise. To alter the situation communities in exclusion should receive respectful inclusion in the mainstream. We should, therefore, offer them direct representation that has not been possible even after the restoration of democracy in 1991.

As concern cultural and linguistic rights of indigenous communities, the state has just begun to work on them. Reluctance and negation are still prevalent because our government believes that the current linguistic and cultural movement in the country by far the most is politically motivated antagonism. Factually, the current ethnic peoples' movement is not very different than Jayatu Sanskritam Aandolan [Victory to Sanskrit Movement], which was, by and large, a political movement in itself. It had raised linguistic and cultural issues some 55 years ago. It played an important rolei in overthrowing Rana regime and bring democracy in 1950. The leaders of that movement are now at the apex of governance. Therefore, it is true that the movement was a political movement. And, if you can have the same sort of movements for your rights then why do you stand antagonistic to the current indigenous peoples' movement for linguistic as well as cultural rights as guaranteed by the constitution of the country and determined by different international laws and UN declarations also? Why do you blame ethnic peoples doing politics? It is true that your rights are established only when you take them to the political levels. So, ethnic communities are not so sad to have their activism labelled by the elite as politically motivated. The current indigenous people's movement is essentially a political activism that we do not fear to agree with. If we are committed to social inclusion and conflict management, we have to rethink and avoid preoccupations.

Cornish language to get official recognition

By Chris Gray (Independent, London)

6 November 2002 Cornish is to be recognised as an official minority language for the first time, after a campaign lasting nearly 100 years

Ministers recognised the Celtic language was in danger of extinction and have added it to the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages alongside others such as Welsh and Scottish Gaelic

Nick Raynsford, the minister for Local Government and the Regions, said the decision was taken to "protect and promote" Cornish

He said: "This is a positive step in acknowledging the symbolic importance the language has for Cornish identity and heritage." The campaign to revive Cornish began in 1904 when Henry Jenner published his Handbook of the Cornish Language, which was the first reference book intended for everyday use rather than academic study

Interest in the language has grown but, of the 500,000 people who live in Cornwall, only about 400 are thought to speak it fluently. About 5,000 know a few words

Bernard Deacon, a lecturer at the Institute of Cornish Studies, welcomed the announcement: "We are not going to be seeing Cornish made compulsory on the school curriculum but this is very important because it is symbolic."