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6. Reports on Field Research

Luri: final traces of a South Bauchi Language of Central Nigeria

Roger Blench
summarising work by Bernard Caron

The following notes are based on a paper in press by Bernard Caron combined with some information I have collected. The Luri language was first recorded in the Bauchi State survey of Campbell & Hoskison (1972). A hundred-word wordlist is held in the archives of the Nigeria Bible Translation Trust, Jos. This is probably the source of the population figure of 30 speakers given in the Ethnologue and the Index of Nigerian languages (Crozier & Blench 1992). Campbell & Hoskison were unable to classify the language except to note that it was Chadic, which is strange, since it appears to be a standard South Bauchi language. The next record of Luri is in CAPRO (1995: 260-262) which was based on research by Patience Ahmed conducted in 1992. She records the name of the language as Luri or Zagsi (presumably a version of Zakshi) and says that Luri was still spoken when she visited. At that time, Luri was still spoken in Luri and Kayarda villages. Bernard Caron (in press) visited in December 2001 and October 2002. The village of Luri (lúr) is some 15 km. southeast of Bauchi town, close to Langas (9°83 E, 10°17 N). According to Caron, following the creation of a Grazing Reserve, the Luri people were compelled to move away and a new Luri was founded some 10 km. away. The speakers of Luri have switched to either Hausa or Langas (=Nyamzak). However, the old chief, Musa, refused to relocate and lives there with his wife. These are probably the last two speakers of the language and both are over eighty so eliciting information is a slow process. Luri is quite similar to Nyamzak and probably should be treated as a dialect of it. References
Campbell, N. and J. Hoskison 1972. Bauchi area survey report. Institute of Linguistics, ms. Mimeo (research conducted 1969/70)
CAPRO Research Office 1995. Unmask the giant. Jos: CAPRO Media. [Bauchi]
Caron, Bernard (in press) Luri. Quelques notes sur une langue tchadique du Nigeria. in Boyeldieu, P., Hommages à France Cloarec-Heiss. Louvain-Paris: Peeters, 2003.
Crozier, D. & R.M. Blench 1992. An Index of Nigerian Languages. Edition 2. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

The Dyarum [=Kaiwari] people and their language
Roger Blench, Mallam Dendo Ltd.
Monday, 17 May 2004

Figure 1. Location of Dyarum

On the edge of Izere land, squeezed between the Izere (Plateau) and the Tunzu (Eastern Kainji) are an isolated group of people locally known as the Kaiwari. This name seems to be a version of Kaiyorawa, recorded in various sources. These are referred to in Temple (1922:171) as a ‘sept of the Hill Jarawa’. This is repeated in all subsequent sources. Their correct name seems to be Dyarum. Locally, Dyarum is considered to be a language that has ‘nearly gone’. Their settlements are about 7 km. south of Toro town in Toro LGA with a map reference of N10° 02, E 9° 04. In Crozier & Blench (1992: 43), Kaiyorawa is said to be a cover term for the Geji cluster also in Toro LGA, consisting of Bolu, Geji and Zaranda. However, these are separate peoples, and the Dyarum say that their language is closest to Danshe, which would be logical, as the Danshe are another Chadic group on the edge of Izere territory not so very far away. If so, they would be an undocumented member of the Zeem cluster, which consists of Zeem, Danshe and Lushi. The main and indeed only source on these languages is Shimizu (1978) where the Zeem grouping first appears.

The name Kaiwari is given by outsiders. For themselves they are: as one person M\n Dyarum, as the people Dyarum, and their language is Ndyarum T\.

A visit was made on 28/12/03 to try and establish the status of Dyarum. The Sarki (=Chief) Dauda Aliyu of Fadagoshi kindly assisted our team to find other speakers, who included Galadima Abdullahi and Muhamman Gidado. A list of some 150 words of Ndyarum T\ was compiled in a group elicitation session. The Dyarum inhabit one large settlement divided into four sections and are highly Islamized, although one section of traditionalists persists. The four sections are:

#	Name	Meaning
1	Mi˜gami	Upper settlements 
2	Mintiri	People of the other side of 
		the stream
3	Mimb\nd\	?
4	Fadagoshi	Old palace

Photo 1. Five of the remaining speakers of Dyarum

Hausa-ization is proceeding apace and some households now do not speak the language at all. I estimated that there are probably 2000 ethnic Dyarum and of those only a limited number speak the language well. The chief himself does not have a fluent command of Ndyarum T\ and none of the young people present at the meeting could speak it. Nonetheless, the older informants have remained fluent and perhaps the language is still commonly spoken in isolated hamlets. But there is no doubt that it is very endangered.

The Ndyarum T\ language
Although a Chadic language, Ndyarum T\ has clearly come under the strong influence of neighbouring Benue-Congo languages. It has two pluralization strategies from Chadic, suffixes -s\ and –˜. Some examples are given below:

Gloss	sg.	pl.
eye	ir	ir\˜
arm	taw	taws\
knee	vørø˜	vørø˜s\
back	kar\	kwar\˜
These resemble Gùùs (=Sigidi) described by Caron (n.d.). But some plurals are formed by labialising the first consonant of the stem, which is typical of Plateau languages, though not, curiously of Izere, its nearest neighbour. Examples:
Gloss	sg.	pl.
ear	k\m	kw\ms\
head	gam	gwams\
cheek	˜g\m	n`gw\m\
Shimizu (1978) does not give plurals, so it is unclear how widespread these strategies are. However, a comparison with the 100 words of Chaari (i.e. Danshe, the language Dyarum people say is closest to their own) shows considerable divergence for many common items. Some of this may be due to the influence of nearby Tunzu, to judge by my own sketchy data on that language. Certainly, the Dyarum and the Tunzu have considerable numbers of common cultural elements. Dyarum seems to be of particular interest and a high priority for more detailed investigation.

Caron, B. n.d. Gùùs, aka Sigidi (Chadic, West-B, South Bauchi): grammatical notes and vocabulary. ms. circulated at the Biennial International Colloquium on the Chadic Language Family, July 5 - 8, 2001, Leipzig.
Gunn, H.D. 1953. Peoples of the Plateau Area of Northern Nigeria. IAI, London. Shimizu, K. 1978. The Southern Bauchi group of Chadic languages. Africana Marburgensia, Sonderheft 2.
Temple, Olive 1922. Notes on the Tribes, Provinces, Emirates and States of the Northern Provinces of Nigeria. Argus Printing and Publishing Co. Capetown.

Notes on the Panawa (Bujiyel) people and language
Roger Blench, Mallam Dendo Ltd.
John Garah Nengel, Jos University

The Panawa (Bujiyel) language forms part of the ‘Jere cluster’ and is in turn part of the Northern Jos group of the East Kainji languages spoken north of the town of Jos in Central Nigeria. There is no reference to this language other than as a dialect of Sanga (=Gusu), which is inaccurate. There are passing references in the ethnographic literature, such as Temple (1922:84) who refers to them as the ‘Bugel’ and Gunn (1953:12) as the ‘Bujiyel’. All subsequent references repeat the same information. This note makes further information available on the status of the language. The survey was conducted on 19th December 2003 and we were guided by Mr. Yakubu Amadu, a former student of John Nengel. Mr. Amadu also kindly assisted us to complete a wordlist of his language.



The son of the former chief of Akuseru kindly answered our questions, as well as allowing a variety of traditional objects to be photographed

Figure 2. Location of Panawa

The Panawa live south of the Jos-Bauchi road which runs east of Jos, in the Toro local government area, Bauchi State. Their villages are reached by a road that runs some 5km. south of the town of Tilden Fulani, which is about 20 km. east of Jos. Figure 1 is a sketch map of the location of the Panawa.

The correct name for one Panawa person is unuPanawa and for the people anaPanawa. The name of the language is iPanawa. iPanawa has no recognised dialects. The origin of the name Bujiyel is unknown, but presumably has some link with the nearby Buji people. They live in five villages:

# Original Modern   Etymology
  name     name		
1 Akus´ru  Fadan    	seat of chief priest
2 Zaba˜a	—  	 name of founder
3 Adiz\n\	—   	down on the plain
4 Akayzoro	—   	?
5 Ka˜kay	-   	in charge of ritual

The Panawa originally lived on a large hill, Owo Panawa, just behind their present settlements. The villages on the plain today were the same five villages situated on the hill, and they moved, wholesale, to the plain in 1948. These villages are also exogamous clans. Clans 1, 4 and 5 could not marry among themselves but had to marry clans 2 and 3.

The closest language to iPanawa is ´Boze (Buji); indeed, lexically it is very close and would conventionally be described as a dialect. However, the tone system is markedly different, making it a different language in an important sense. A little English is spoken but Hausa is widespread. Because of marriage between the Panawa and neighbouring tribes, Izere, Iguta and Fulfulde are commonly spoken second languages.

The population of the district is about 20,000 but the great majority of these are settlers along the road. There are probably no more than 3-4000 Panawa. The dispersed nature of their settlements makes such estimations very difficult. The main threat to iPanawa, as elsewhere in this region, is Hausa, which is spoken in schools and between young people. However, children were observed to be speaking their mother tongue, so the threat to the language is present, but not yet extreme.

Gunn, H.D. 1953. Peoples of the Plateau Area of Northern Nigeria. IAI, London.
Temple, Olive 1922. Notes on the Tribes, Provinces, Emirates and States of the Northern Provinces of Nigeria. Argus Printing and Publishing Co. Capetown.
Notes on the Tunzu (Duguza) people and language Roger Blench, Mallam Dendo Ltd.
John Garah Nengel, Jos University
17 May 2004
The Tunzu (Duguza) language is an East Kainji language spoken northeast of Jos town in Central Nigeria. Tunzu is classified together with Janji, Guta and the Jere cluster within East Kainji (Crozier & Blench 1992). Although it is clearly divergent, the wordlist taken suggests that Tunzu is correctly placed in this group. The earliest reference to this language is Temple (1922:96), followed by Gunn (1953:31), Shimizu (1975:12) and Nengel (1999). There appears to be no published data on the language at all. A survey was conducted on 30th December 2003 and this note makes further information available on the status of the language.

The following are the correct names for people and language in the Tunzu language;

one person		Tunzú
people		àTunzû
the language	ìTunzû

The origin of the name Duguza is uncertain, but it is just possible that it is a distorted version of the autonym, Tunzu. It may be that the name was originally *Tugunza. If so, these processes could have occurred when Hausa speakers heard the name:

t > d (a common phonologization) loss of nasalization

And then in modern iTunzu an intervocalic –g- could have been lost and the final –a become –u through vowel regularization.

Tunzu could be transformed into Duguza. The Hausa realisation, Duguza, might thus preserve features lost in the modern form. Nonetheless, it should be dropped as a reference name.

Figure 3: Location of Tunzu

Temple (1922: 96) gave the population as 275, the Local Authority Census of 1971 as 500 and the Ethnologue quotes an unsourced SIL estimate of 1973 as 2000. The people’s own estimate of the number of speakers is 2500, which seems reasonable. There are probably another 2000 ethnic Tunzu who don’t speak the language. Figure 1 is a sketch map of the location of the Tunzu;

The Tunzu live in 5 villages in Jos East Local Government, Plateau State, with two settlements, Kurfi and Magama, in Toro LGA, Bauchi State. However, these latter two are highly Islamised and the language is largely lost to Hausa. Their main settlement, Gada, is marked on maps and other villages are very close. The villages are

# Original name	Modern name Loc. Map Ref
1 Ajirizø	Derezok	Jos East N10° 01, E 9° 07
2 Dacuwa	Paa	Jos East	
3 Nømøn	Nømøn	Jos East	
4 Mincari	Shibiri	Jos East	
5 Kurfi	Korofai	Toro	
6 Magama	Magama	Toro	
7 Gada	Gada	Jos East N10° 02, E 9° 06

The existing references to the location of the Tunzu are confused and it appears the reason is that in the nineteenth century, Hausa raiders scattered the community and fractions of it fled to a number of quite remote areas. These migrants eventually assimilated with the peoples among whom they lived, although some have retained a partial knowledge of the language and culture of origin. At least five migrant groups are known, among the Boze, Guta, Ribina, Jere and Dass peoples. Those among the Ribina, Jere and Boze have lost their language. Those who live among the Guta are ‘still trying’ and are said to speak a mixed language, with elements of iTunzu and iGuta. Those among the Dass (a Chadic language, unrelated to Tunzu) have preserved their cultural identity and have recently made efforts to send their children to live among the Tunzu so that they will learn the language.

Hausa is widespread and has largely driven out Tunzu in Kurfi and Magama. Apart from Hausa, Izere and iBunu are the commonly spoken second languages. Nonetheless, compared with some of the neighbouring languages, the Tunzu people are making an effort to ensure that the language is maintained. For example, they encourage Tunzu who migrate to the towns to send their children back to the village so that they will have at least a rudimentary command of the language. Children in the rural community all seem to be fairly fluent, despite the bias towards Hausa in the schools system. Nonetheless, there is no room for complacency as Hausa has made considerable inroads in the languages of their neighbours.

Crozier, D. & R.M. Blench 1992. An Index of Nigerian Languages. Edition 2. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
Gunn, H.D. 1953. Peoples of the Plateau Area of Northern Nigeria. IAI, London.
Nengel, J.G. 1999. Precolonial African intergroup relations in the Kauru and Pengana polities of Central Nigerian Highlands, 1800-1900. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Shimizu, Kiyoshi 1975. The language groups in and around Benue-Plateau State. mimeo. Centre for the Study of Nigerian Languages, Kano.
Temple, Olive 1922. Notes on the Tribes, Provinces, Emirates and States of the Northern Provinces of Nigeria. Argus Printing and Publishing Co. Capetown.